The Study Of Language Attitude Of Sundanese Society In Cities In West Java Toward Sundanese Language Based On Educational Background

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Duta Bahasa Jawa Barat

Juru Foto

Dokumen Dubas Jabar

Ade Mulyanah, M.Hum

Ad_ariell@yahoo.com

Balai Bahasa Jawa Barat, Badan Bahasa, Kemdikbud

 

The paper has been presented  in KOLITA 15

This study aims to investigate the language attitudes of Sundanese in cities in West Java based on educational background by employing a questionnaire survey.  The method  of the study is quantitative method.  The writer seeks to reveal the language attitude related to education of the respondents.  The ethno-lingusitic situation that West Java is a province where most of people speak Sundanese, as their mother tongue  supports the writer to finds description of Sundanese toward their mother tounge has aroused the writer’s interest in exploring Sundanese people’s attitudes  in cities  in West Java toward their mother tongue .  It is of great importance to understand people’s attitudes towards their mother   tongue. The instrument of the study is sociolinguistic questionnaire.   In order to achieve the objectives of the study, the writer selected a sample that consists of 500 Sundanese respondents who reside in Cities in West Java (Bandung, Bogor, and Bekasi) based on their educational background. The research tries to reveal the type of respondents’ educational background related knowledge of local language policy issued by local government in form of PERDA,  their language attitude of  Sundanese people in cities in West Java toward Sundanese language, and th effect of language attitude and knowledge of local language policy issued by local government in form of PERDA.

The result of the research shows  that   (1)  the level of educational having  the knowledge of local language policy issued by government is master graduate group ( 46.67%),  (2) the category of respondents having the most positive attitude toward Sundanese language is junior high school students (63.83%), (3) the language attitude of Sundanese risiding in cities in West Java is categorized quite good, (4) and the  most striking finding is that there is  no effect between their knowledge of local language policy issued by the government with their language attitude. It can be seen from  the amount of significance is 0,0625%. The rest of amount is influenced by other variable ( 99,9375% ).

Key words: Language attitude, Sundanese, urban Sundanese, education background

 

 

 

 

Introduction

 

West Java is a region in the island of Java with a predominance of Sundanese. However, West Java community, especially those living in big cities such as Bogor, Bekasi and Bandung, is a multicultural and multilingual society. It affects the language they use in everyday communication. Although  West Java is identical with Sundanese, in terms of language it can be said that in West Java, there are three regional languages are recognized by the local government, namely, Sundanese language (hereinafter abbreviated as BS), Betawi Malay (Melayu Betawi), and the language of Cirebon. BS is used in almost all areas of West Java. Malay Betawi is used by people in Bekasi, while the language of used in Cirebon and the surrounding area.

Although BS is the language used by most of people in West Java, there are concerns about more reduction of it users. The concern is not just because it is influenced by external factors, such as the influence of Indonesian (hereinafter abbreviated as BI), but also by internal factors, such as their language rafter steps that lead young people experiencing difficulties in air-BS. Both of these factors lead to many families who no longer want to use the BS in the family, even the family including husband and wife Sunda Sunda (hereinafter referred to as Sunda-Sunda family). Families who are not faithful to this BS then switch to BI for various reasons. Thus, there has been a shift in the language (language shifting).

According to Keller (1964) language shift caused more by the emergence of the industry. Mkilifi (1978) and Cooper (1978) showed that the role of language became the lingua franca (in this case, including Indonesian) often urged the local language. Meanwhile, in a study of Malay Loloan in Bali, Sumarsono (1993) found evidence that language retention factor influenced by religion. It is also important to note that no single factor that is able to stand alone as the sole supporter of preservation and the language shift.  That is why the study of it is always interesting, repetitive, and continues.

The issue of language shift is very important to be studied considering the language is also related to the issue of identity. Someone who is not able to master the local language will loss his local identity. Sundanese people who are not able to speak Sundanese certainly not worth mentioning as the Sundanese. Nationally, this issue becomes important because this nation was built on ethnic groups. If individuals in ethnic groups that increasingly are losing their identity, would wake up / shape this nation be not as beautiful now

The phenomenon that is common in Indonesia is a symptom terdesaknya local languages (including BS) by BI. The phenomenon also occurs in the language. Most people whose mother tongue Sunda BS has now been made the central bank as their primary language. Thus, there has been infidelity language. The phenomenon that needs to be proven with extensive research so that it can be known how "bad" it has lasted. With deep research can be known with certainty what percentage of the shift has occurred. With definite figures can also be foreseen what will happen to the generation of intergenerational, a condition when the next generation has lost its linguistic identity.

 

            Community care users to use Sundanese language is closely related to the attitude of one's language. Garvin and Mathiot in (Suwito, 1983) suggests that language attitudes that at least contain three main characteristics, namely fidelity language (language loyalty), language pride, and awareness of language norms. Thus, when someone using a language will be influenced by be some factors, one of them is language attitude.  

The aim of the study

 

  1. What is respondens’ level of education having  the knowledge of local language policy issued by government?
  2. What is respondents’ category having the most positive attitude toward Sundanese language?
  3. How is their language attituted toward Sundanese language?
  4. What is the efect  their knowledge of local language policy issued by the government with their language attitude?

 

Hypothesis

  1. The more education the respondens have, the better language attitute will be.
  2. There will be the effect of their knowledge of local language policy issued by the goverment with their language attitude.

 

Metodology

 

The method used in this study is a survey, a study that took a sample of the population and collecting data by using questionnaires as a data collection.  The aim of the study is to describe and to interpret things pertaining to a condition or symptom as it describes symptoms and the association of various variables factual issues examined systematically.

The sample used in this study taken from  a population of 500 people representing the Sundanese people in urban areas in West Java in three cities in West Java, Bandung, Bogor, and Bekasi. It  consists of  324 respondents living in the city of Bogor, 84 respondents living in the city of Bandung, and 92 respondents living in the city of Bekasi.

 

             The study was conducted using a questionnaire consisting of Likert scale form Indonesia, and five questions with regards to foreign languages. Each statement has five alternative responses, namely: Strongly Agree (SA), Agree (A), Undecided (Ud), Disagree (DA), and Strongly Disagree (SDA). Data processing begins with each respondent to quantify the response using the following reference

 

 

Statement

SA

A

Ud

DA

SDA

Positive

5

4

3

2

1

Negative

1

2

3

4

5

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Data quantification results is  in the form ordinal scale, therefore, before the data analysis is performed,  transformation of the original data in form of data ordinal scale is changed into data interval scale by using Method Successive Interval (MSI) aided software STAT97 the add-in to MS Excel.

 

Analysis

 

The analyis of data is divided into four parts, namely, the level of educational having  the knowledge of local language policy issued by government, the category of respondents having the most positive attitude toward Sundanese language, the language attitude of Sundanese risiding in cities in West Java,  and the  the effect between their knowledge of local language policy issued by the government with their language attitude

 

(1)Level of Education having  the knowledge of local language policy issued by government

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Respondents Category

 

Diagram 1 shows that 500 respondents represent all levels of education, starting from elementary up to S3. The data about the respondents is as follows, namely 2.80% of the respondents is elementary level; 3.00% of respondents is   from junior hugh school; 33.40% of respondents is high school education; 46.00% of respondents is S1; and 13.40% of respondents is S2, and 1.40% of respondents is S3. Thus, we can conclude that most of the respondents involved in the reserach are senior high school level.

 

(2) The category of respondents’ knowledge of local language policy issued by government having the most positive attitude toward Sundanese language

 

 

 

From Table 12 and Diagram 12 it appears that:

(1) the general knowledge of urban Sundanese people of West Java on linguistic rules are reviewed by education level reached 42.31% thus excluding the unfavorable category;
(2) knowledge of the Sundanese people about the rules of language are reviewed on the basis of the level of elementary education amounted to 34.06 %% thus excluding the unfavorable category;
(3) knowledge of the Sundanese community based secondary education level amounted to 37.94%; thus including unfavorable category;
(4) knowledge of the Sundanese community based high school education level amounted to 40.26%; thus including unfavorable category;
(5) knowledge of the Sundanese people by education level S1 amounted to 43.02%; thus including unfavorable category;
(6) the knowledge of the Sundanese people by education level S2 amounted to 47.67%; thus including unfavorable category;
(7) knowledge of the Sundanese people by education level S3 amounted to 42.44%; thus excluding the unfavorable category.

 

 

 

 

Conclusion:
Knowledge of urban Sundanese people of West Java on linguistic rules are reviewed by education level including the unfavorable category. Knowledge of the language rules Sundanese community education level S2 rank first, second ranked S1, S3 third, fourth high school, junior ranked sixth, and SD ranked last.

3) The Attitude of the Urban Sundanese People of West Java

 

The results of data processing Sundanese language attitudes of urban Sundanese people of West Java are presented in Table 1 and Figure 1 below.

 

Tabel 1

Descriptives

Language Attitude toward Sundanese Language

 

Bogor

Bandung

Bekasi

Total

N

324

84

92

500

Mean

62.6608

67.9121

65.7654

64.1143

Std. Deviation

10.79577

9.00728

8.87015

10.37241

Std. Error

.59977

.98278

.92478

.46387

95% Confidence Interval for Mean

Lower Bound

61.4808

65.9574

63.9285

63.2029

Upper Bound

63.8407

69.8668

67.6024

65.0256

Minimum

28.64

47.33

46.72

28.64

Maximum

93.16

96.82

93.20

96.82

 

 

When viewed by category, was the attitude of the urban language Sundanese people in the city of Bogor, Bandung and Bekasi are the same, including the category quite well. But when viewed from the average value as shown in Diagram 1 there are indications that the average is different. To further assure the test the average difference in the attitude of people of the city of Bogor, Bandung and Bekasi done using Anova one path (1-Way ANOVA). The test results of the classic terms of ANOVA one path, that each language attitude data is normally distributed and homogeneous bervariansi already met at significance level α = 0.05.

From Anova table it is known  the Sig. = 0.000. Because the value of Sig. = 0,000 <α = 0.05, Ho: there is no difference in attitudes toward Sundanese between the people who live in the city of Bogor, Bandung and Bekasi city rejected at the significance level α = 0.05.
Conclusion:
There are differences in attitudes toward Sundanese significantly between the people who live in the city of Bogor, Bandung and Bekasi.

 

 

 

The research hypotheses:
Knowledge of the language rules significantly influence the attitude of the urban language Sundanese community in West Java.Analysis of the data will be used using path analysis (path analysis) with exogenous variables (variables that affect) is knowledgeable about the law and endogenous variables (variables that are affected) is the language attitude.

 

Hypothesis test:
H0: There was no significant effect of knowledge of the rules of language to language attitudes of urban Sundanese community in West Java.
H1: There was a significant effect of knowledge of the rules of language to language attitudes of urban Sundanese community in West Java.

Test criteria: accept H0 if the Sig. ≥ α = 0.05 and for other conditions H0.
The results of data processing using SPSS are presented in Table 26 below

.

Tabel 2

Coefficientsa

Model

Unstandardized Coefficients

Standardized Coefficients

t

Sig.

B

Std. Error

Beta

 

(Constant)

63.893

.934

 

68.420

.000

The Knowledge of language policy

-.012

.020

-.025

-.565

.572

  1. Dependent Variable: Language Attitude

 

 

From Table 2 on Coefficients it can be seen that the Sig corresponding to linguistic knowledge is 0.572. Because the value of Sig. = 0.572> α = 0.05 then H0 is accepted at significance level α = 0.05 (5%). This means that the hypothesis 3, namely: Knowledge of the language rules significantly influence the attitude of the urban language Sundanese people of West Java is rejected at the significance level α = 0.05.
Based on  Table 2 on the Coefficients obtained path diagram for the influence of knowledge about the rules of language (X) on the attitudes of the language (Y) are presented in Figure 1 below.

 

.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Figure 1
Diagram Paths to Influence Knowledge of the rules of language to Language Attitude Sundanese  urban communities in West Java

 

 

 

 

Information:
Path coefficient value (pyx) to influence the knowledge of linguistic rules (X) on the attitudes of the language (Y) is obtained from the intersection with the line between columns Beta Linguistic Knowledge. Path coefficient value (pye) to the influence of external variables (e) the language attitude (Y) obtained by the formula p_yε = √ (1-p_yx ^ 2)mark * means significant at α = 0.05 significance level.Figure 1 can be calculated from the influence of linguistic rules (X) on the attitudes of the language (Y) that is equal to: (pyx) 2 x 100% = (-0.025) 2 x 100% = 0.000625 x 100% = 0.0625%. Knowledge of language rules so no significant effect on the attitude of the urban language Sundanese community in West Java because the effect only of 0.0625% while the rest of the remaining amount of 99.9375% ditententukan by other variables.

 

 

Conclusion

 

 

            Based on the the data analysis, it can be concluded the following findings. They are as follows:

  1. the level of educational having  the knowledge of local language policy issued by government is master graduate group ( 46.67%),
  2. the category of respondents having the most positive attitude toward Sundanese language is junior high school students (63.83%),
  3. the language attitude of Sundanese risiding in cities in West Java is categorized quite good,
  4. and the  most striking finding is that there is  no effect between their knowledge of local language policy issued by the government with their language attitude. It can be seen from  the amount of significance is 0,0625%. The rest of amount is influenced by other variable ( 99,9375% ).

 

 

 

 

 

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CURRICULUM VITAE

Complete Name                              : Ade Mulyanah, M.Hum

Institution                                       :  Balai Bahasa Jawa Barat, Badan Bahasa, Kemdikbud

Education                                       :

  • Bachelor, English Letters Department, UPI
  • Graduate Program, English Language Studies, Padjadjaran University

Research Interests                           :

  • Applied Linguistic

Sociolinguistics

Shaqilla Maharani

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